Post a substantive written response to 2 other classmates’ threads. Your response must identify specific weakness(es) as well as note the strengths of the post. By identifying a weakness (content based, not a spelling/grammatical aspect), you display the critical thinking skills required in a graduate course. Refrain from making statements like “I really couldn’t find a weakness to your thread but the assignment required it . . . ’’+ an insubstantial critique, as this is your chance to help your peer write stronger in their future threads. You should put as much time into your reply phase as you do your thread. The strongest scores on that portion are reserved for those replies that incorporate specific evidence rather than making opinion-based statements. Please maintain the proper tone in your critique by addressing the issues instead of attacking the person.


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2 replies of at least 200 words each.For your 2 replies, you must incorporate a minimum of 2 different resources citing them in current APA format. You may use the textbook, scholarly journals, the Bible, and governmental websites.


The Text book is Lynch, D.A. (2010). Trade and globalization: An introduction to regional trade agreements. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN: 9780742566897.



The discussion board post question was Provide a historical perspective of the EU by discussing how it started and where it is today. In addition, research the Christian Democratic Union (CDU) which is a Christian-based political party that is focused on applying the principles of Christian democracy and emphasizing the Christian understanding of humans and their responsibility toward God. Discuss what role the CDU has played during the development of the EU.




First student response- Monica Filed 

The European Union was created by the Maastricht Treaty on November 1 1993, but was a result of gradual integration since 1945, an evolution when one level of the European Union has been seen to work, giving confidence and impetus for a next level. Europe was divided after World War II into the communist, eastern bloc, Soviet dominated, and the largely dominated western nations.   (Wilde, 2015.) Throughout the years, there have been several changes in the European Union that helped to broaden their work and now today is a politico-economic union of 28 member states.

     The European Union has named 2015 the year of development. The European Committee  joined the European Union to raise awareness concerning

poverty issues across Europe. This situation affected about 54 million people throughout Europe due to the rising energy prices, low

income, and poor efficient homes.  Europe is trying to encourage the fellow citizens to get involved in ridding poverty in order to sustain development. The

European Union wants the governments to officially recognize the citizens that are in poverty and in borderline situations so

they can be more efficient in helping in aiding these households. The political party plans to reach 150 countries worldwide between the years of 2014-

2020. (European Commission, 2015.)

     The Christian Denomination Union (CDU) first leader was Konrad-Hermann Joseph Adenauer, which was the oldest elected politician in history. Konrad-Hermann worked to restore the West German economy that was destroyed during to the World War II into a central location in Europe, presiding over the German Economic Miracle. Konrad changed the German and European history more than any individual in his time and had a large influence in major steps towards development.

     There was long and countless years of friction between Germany and France, which put a big strain on the economy. Adenauer began to focus on promoting the idea of the Pan-European cooperation that he felt would be a great beginning to building a better Europe. Adenauer opinions and ideas on European unity was he wanting to establish long-term peace and stability so the community could finally start progressing forward. Adenauer’s foreign policy was his idea of reconciliation with France and he managed to meet with Charles de Gaulle (France President at the time). The two presidents agreed that it was time to put aside the animosity between the two countries and at that time they signed a treaty of friendship that was a major milestone in creating the European integration. Adenauer’s was one of the most influential political parties in that era that helped with reconciliation and the building of Europe’s stability to a better future. (European Union, 2013.)




Wilde, R. (2015.) History of the European Union. Retrieved From:

European Union (2013). The Founding Fathers of the EU. Retrieved From:

European Commission (2015.) Energy poverty may affect nearly 1% of the EU population. Retrieved From:



Second student response- Nicholas Driver

European Union:


The European Union is a trade agreement designed to regulate the needs of its participating countries. It is comprised of three (3) separate units: EU Council, Parliament, and European Commission. Each unit is designed to propose, accept, and enforces trading laws (Maazel, 2002). Throughout its existence, the EU has grown and transformed to suit contemporary needs and function efficiently in today’s internationally-based economy.



The Beginning of the EU:


The European Union (EU) began in 1993 with only fifteen (15) countries and 370 million total citizens. Each member of the trade agreement approved of free, cross-border trade while remaining independent and self-governed (Maazel, 2002). In what was known as the “big bang expansion,” the four original members of Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) left to join the EU. “The EU increased its membership dramatically in 2004 from 15 to 25 states and in 2007 expanded to 27” (Lynch, 2010, p.153). Furthermore, in 1994, the European Economic Area (EEA) was created and consisted of the entire European Union and three EFTA members (Lynch, 2010). This additional expansion essentially increased the EU’s international scope and allowed for further international integration. Essentially, the EU unified Europe while allowing each country retain its individuality.



EU Today:


Today, the EU is experiencing a plethora of social issues. “At a time of austerity, concerns about the consequences of further population ageing for the economy and for health and welfare systems are now firmly on political agendas” (Rechel, 2013). An increase in age yields additional health concerns and increased health care costs.

Additionally, the EU members utilizes a common currency – the euro. This single currency is a “strong symbolic commitment to integration” and a way to create international dependency (Lynch, 2010, p. 178). Using the euro also protects member countries from unnecessary inflation due to external competition. Many countries today are vying for a position within this trade agreement.



Christian Democratic Union (CDU):


After WWII, the Christian Democratic Union was developed in Germany by Catholics and Protestants. Transnationalist leaders “came overwhelmingly from Catholic milieaux [which] underscores the embeddedness of the European Union’s origins in Christian democratic politics and ideologies” (Kaiser, 2007). This is no surprise because the religious culture in Europe during the 19th century was grounded in Catholicism. During this time of unification, this Christian based political party focused on applying Christian democracy to what would soon be the largest, most successful economic trade body in the entire world. Compared to any other Christian party, Germany’s CDU appears to be much more modern and successful (Laberts, 1997). The CDU has even been able to appeal to secular voters by promoting such values as individual liberties, democratic governance, and wide-ranging respect for human rights.




Works Cited:


Kaiser, W. (2007). Christian Democracy and the Origins of European Union Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press. Retrieved from


Lamberts, E. (1997). Christian democracy in the European Union, 1945/1995: Proceedings of the Leuven colloquium, 15-18 November 1995. Leuven, Belgium: Leuven University Press.



Lynch, D. (2010). Trade and globalization: An introduction to regional trade agreements. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield



Maazel, I. (2002). What is the European union? BYU Journal of Public Law. Retrieved from is the European Union?&rft.jtitle=



Rechel, B., Grundy, E., Robine, J., Cylus, J., Mackenbach, J. P., Knai, C., & McKee, M. (2013). Ageing in the european union. The Lancet, 381(9874), 1312-22. Retrueved from


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